Undergraduate Courses in the Curriculum REED’s curriculum spans over five academic years. The school follows the semester system (two semesters per year) and, as the laws of the Ahfad University require, each semester will be treated separately in terms of the courses and evaluation of results. The duration of the lecture is 50 minutes, and each lecture is given the load of one credit hour. Each course is given a course title, course designation, and a load in terms of credit hours. The current planned curriculum for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree in Rural Extension Education and Development at REED is composed of 52 courses, 16 of which are University Required Courses, 3 are Extra First Year Courses, and 33 are School Compulsory Courses. Listed below are the courses that constitute the curriculum, distributed by semesters and academic years. 

Semester 1

Code            Course Title                                      Credits

ARAB 101     Arabic Language                                        3

ENGL 101     English Language I                                     3

MATH 101    Mathematics                                             3

ENVS 101     Environmental Studies                                3

(PSYC 101) Social Sciences Psychology or 

Sociology (SOCI 101)                                                    3 

Total                                                                         15

Semester 2

Code                       Course Title                                Credit

SUDS 102                 Sudanese studies                               3

ENGL 102                  English Language II                            3

BIOL 106/ BIOL 104    Botany/Zoology                                 3

PSYC 101                  Psychology                                        3

CHEM 101/CHEM 102   Chemistry                                         3

SOCI 101                   Sociology                                          3

HISR 101                   History                                              3

PHIS 101                   Philosophy                                          3

 ENGL 103                 English literature                                  3

POPU 101                  Population studies *                             3                

Total                                                                               15 

 *The maximum number of courses to be taken by the student is 5, and total number of credit hours per semester is fifteen (15). The student has to select 3 courses from the basket in addition to ENGL & SUDS 

Semester 3

Code Course             Title                                                                    Credits

ENGL 201                    English Language III                                                   3

STAT 201 Statistics 2

EXED 201                   Introduction to Extension Education and development     3

RSOC 201                   Rural Sociology                                                           3

FSYS 201                   Farming System                                                          3

Total                                                                                                       14

Semester 4

Code Course             Title                                                                     Credits

INRD 202                 Introduction to Rural Development                                 3

ENGM 202                Environmental Management                                          3

ENGL 202                 English Language  IV                                                   3

APTC 202                 Appropriate Technology for Rural Development I             3

HORT 202                 Principles for Horticulture                                            3

Total                                                                                                     15

Semester 5

Code                        Course Title                                                           Credits  

RUEX 401                  Rural Extension                                                            4

WSGS 301                 Women studies/Gender studies                                     2

NFAE 301                  Non- formal and Adult Education                                    3

ACCB 301                  Accounting and Bookkeeping                                        2

COMD 301                 Community Development                                             3

COMH 301                 Community health                                                      2

Total                                                                                                      16

Semester 6

Code                        Course Title                                                        Credits

FIEX 302                   Field Internship Experience Exchange                        2

RFIN 302                   Rural Finance                                                         3

POPD 302                  Population and Development                                   2

CTHM 302                  Communication Theory and methods                        3

FMRT 302                  Fundamentals of Marketing                                       3

GDWD 302               Gender and Development / Women and Development   2

Total                                                                                                 15 

Semester 7

Code             Course                                                                 Title Credits

RESM 401      Research  Methods                                                          3

EXED 401      Extension Education and Development                               3

SPAE 401      Philosophy and Special Programs in Adult Education              3

SLVA 401      Sustainable livelihoods and Vulnerability Analysis                   3

FSAP 401       Food Security and Aid Policy                                            3

Total                                                                                              15

Semester 8

Code              Course Title                                                           Credits

DINN 402        Diffusions of innovation                                                 3

RESM 402       Research Methods Qualitative                                         3

RDTM 402      Rural Development Theories, strategies                            3

RSEM 402      Rural Small Enterprise Management                                  3

APTC  402     Appropriate Technology for Rural Development II              3

Total                                                                                            15

Semester 9 

Code          Course Title                                                           Credits

AGEX 501    Agriculture Extension                                                    3

CMLS 501    Community Mobilization and leadership                             3

NIDO 501    National and international Development Organizations         3

PPMG 501    Project Planning and Management                                  3

Total                                                                                          12

Semester 10

Code          Course                                                                     Title Credits

GPRD 502    Gender  planning Initiative for Rural Development                   3

SGID 502     Special Groups in Development                                           3

EXAS 502    Extension Administration and supervision                               3

RESP 502    Research project                                                               6

CDEV 502    Career Guide and Development                                           1

Total                                                                                               16

Graduation Requirements

For graduation with a Bachelor of Sciences (Honors) Degree in Rural Extension, Education and Development, the student should successfully complete the study of 148 Cr. Hrs + 6 Cr. Hrs. For additional information, refer to the University General Academic Information.  

Course Descriptions Second Year

STAT 201  Statistics 2 cr.

This course contains both descriptive and inferential statistics components. The first part includes introductory topics to acquaint the students with descriptive statistics. The second part covers inferential statistics to enable the student to infer data on populations on the basis of analysis of representative samples.

EXED 201  Introduction to Extension Education and Development 3 cr.

The purpose of this course is to enable students to acquire knowledge, skills and techniques essential for extension and development workers. Special attention is given to definitions of basic concepts and the imparting of general knowledge needed for preparing students to enroll in advanced studies in the fields of rural extension education and development.

RSOC 201  Rural Sociology 3 cr.

This course aims to develop wide understanding of the rural societies, particularly, Sudanese societies. This includes the characteristics, the structure and the patterns of rural livelihoods. Also, the course analyzes the pattern of environmental changes and their socio-economic impacts. The course also will identify and assess policies and approaches to sustainable rural development.

FSYS 201  Farming Systems 3 cr.

The course provides a framework for better application of ecological principles to agricultural production systems worldwide. It assesses the ecosystem’s structure, function and energy material flows at field, farm and community levels. The course also emphasizes on the role of livestock systems in the different farming systems.

ENGL 201  English Language III 3 cr.

This course is designed to increase the student’s scientific vocabulary. It also prepares the students to get the most out of lectures and written materials besides increasing the four language skills. The course is designed based on a book which consists of 12 units from which 6 are taught this semester.

INRD 202  Introduction to Rural Development 3 cr.

The course is designed to introduce students to the concept of rural development. It provides general view of rural development approaches and programs. The course discusses the most critical issues of rural development namely: participation, food security, gender, poverty, intermediate technologies and sustainable development. The course provides lessons and experiences of rural development in Sudan. 

ENGM 202  Environmental Management 3 cr.

This course examines environmental planning, management, policy formulation and the effect of environmental management. The Environmental impacts on natural systems, such as range, forests, and farming and their interaction with economic, political and cultural factors will be discussed. Environmental assessment concepts and methodologies will be introduced, and the impact of globalization, the roles of the private sector and NGOs will be examined.

APTC 202  Appropriate Technology for Rural Development I 3 cr.

This course is designed to provide the students with the basic knowledge and understanding of the techniques and practices related to energy utilization and production generally and in Sudan particularly. The present energy utilization technologies will be assessed. More emphasis will be placed on renewable energies for their inter-connectedness with appropriate technologies and for their vital role in sustainability of rural development.

HORT 202  Principle of Horticulture 3 cr.

This course is designed in a manner that will enable students to understand horticultural principles and practices for managing vegetables and fruits production, as well as nurseries and ornamental plants, besides studying the most important vegetables, fruits and ornamentals’ and nutritive and aesthetic values. The students will perform different cultural practices on the above mentioned groups.

ENGL 202  English Language IV 3 cr.

This course gives special care to topics related to Development issues and sustainability. It teaches students how to use the dictionary, how to guess the meanings of new words from the context, how to take perfect lecture notes, how to give sentences their special focus and link ideas in text, and how to choose the correct introductory verbs. Third Year

NFAE 301  Non-Formal and Adult Education 3 cr.

The purpose of this course is to provide the students with the knowledge and skills of teaching and designing adult education courses for adult learners. The course aims to introduce adult education concepts and teaching/learning methods, and how to teach adult learners through participatory methods of teaching and learning, specially REFLECT and CLE.

ACCB 301  Accounting and Bookkeeping 2 cr.

This course aims to provide the students with a conceptual understanding of the use and control of information contained in the financial statements and to analyze that information for business decision- making purposes.

COMD 301  Community Development 3 cr.

The course introduces the students to principles and elements of community development. The course discusses community development related issues.  Some field skills, like organizations of CBOs and community needs assessment through PLA are also introduced to the students.

COMH 301  Community Heath 2 cr.

The course is designed to provide knowledge and skills on community health needs for rural people, and mobilize and help these communities towards improving it. The role of extension in health education will be emphasized as well as health management.

RUEX 401  Rural Extension 4 cr.

The purpose of this course is to provide the students with knowledge, skills and techniques essential for Extension and Rural Development workers. Special attention is given to basic concepts of development and change, extension, diffusion and adoption as well as communication. The course also gives special consideration to reproductive health issues as well as current problems of rural development.

WSGS 301  Women Studies/Gender Studies  2 cr.

The course introduces women and gender studies’ concepts. Women’s empowerment concepts, approaches, strategies, accomplishments and constraints are discussed. The course tackles issues of the history of women’s movement against oppression in different contexts. Moreover, the course shows the link between gender and women’s studies and other social and applied sciences. 

FIEX 302  Field Internship Experience Exchange 2 cr.

The students present their experiences and findings after the first practical training (internship) period to the whole class and discuss the new experiences, obstacles, limitations and how to overcome them.

RFIN 302  Rural Finance 3 cr.

The course introduces the characteristic features of the rural areas and their credit requirements. It makes the students aware with the different modes of lending adopted by the private and public sources of rural credit. The experience of financial institutions in mobilization of rural savings and the financing, as well as the institutional set ups for addressing the problems of providing financial services in rural areas will be discussed.

CTHM 302  Communication Theory and Methods 3 cr.

This course provides an introduction to the major theories and methods of mass communication. The course is devoted to surveys and analysis of mass communication, with emphasis on the methods commonly employed in extension programs. Students will also examine a broad range of methodologies and approaches to mass extension communication.

POPD 302  Population and Development 2 cr.

The course aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of population growth, composition, major demographic processes and their relation with social, economic and environmental aspects. Special emphasis would be placed on the country’s population policies.

FMRT 302  Fundamentals of Marketing 3 cr.

This is an introductory marketing course covering many of the basic marketing principles that are required in marketing different products in urban and rural areas. The students will be trained on how to develop marketing plans.

GDWD 302  Gender and Development/ Women and Development 2 cr.

The course focuses on gender mainstreaming frameworks, methodologies and approaches. The students will acquire the skills on how to carry-out gender analysis to assess gender gaps and gender discrimination in development, Matters relating to achievement of gender equality and equity will be discussed. Fourth Year

EXED 401  Extension Education and Development 3 cr.

The course is designed to develop students’ understanding of extension education and program development theories, principles and approaches, and their application in planning, implementation and evaluation of extension and community development programs. Different approaches to extension education and current related issues will be covered.

SPAE 401  Philosophy and Special Programs in Adult Education 3 cr.

The aim of this course is to provide students with knowledge of the different philosophical perspectives of adult education and to engage them in discussion of their differences in terms of purpose, characteristics of teachers and learners, and the relevant teaching methods in the different contexts. Special adult education programs will be identified and subjected to analysis.

SLVA 401  Sustainable Livelihoods and Vulnerability Analysis 3 cr.

This course is aimed primarily to familiarize students with theories, concepts, and methods related to the study of Livelihood, vulnerability, disasters and risk. Application of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in assessing rural livelihood strategies will be discussed.

FSAP 401  Food Security and Aid Policy 3 cr.

The course provides in-depth analysis to food policies in Sudan. It addresses households’ food security in terms of accessibility, affordability and accountability. The course discusses measurement and assessment of traditional temporary and permanent food insecurity. It is also focused on monitoring food production and distribution, and early warning systems, as well as on humanitarian aid systems and policies.

RESM 401  Research Methods 3 cr.

This course provides an overview of research methods in the social sciences. The emphasis is on both conceptual understanding and development of skills. The student will become acquainted with social science research methodologies, design, and proposal writing; and with ethical issues. A partial requirement in this course is preparation of a research proposal.

DINN 402 Diffusion of Innovations 3 cr

The course provides an in-depth introduction to theories and models of diffusion and adoption of innovations and their implications. It explain the processes by which technological innovations or products spread over time via communication channels and other arrangements to members of a social system, and to identify the multi-faceted factors that affect the processes of their adoption from different perspectives. 

RESM 402  Research Method qualitative 3 cr.

This course introduces students to the research design analysis procedures and their application in social science studies. The students will be introduced to qualitative data analysis methods. Particular attention will be placed on qualitative research methodologies. Topics that will be covered include survey design, sampling methods, data collection and analysis methods, and report writing

APTC 402  Appropriate Technology for Rural Development II 3 cr.

The aim of this course is to provide students with a better understanding of agricultural mechanization and technologies and its role in rural development, as well as providing them with the technical knowledge needed by small farmers in the different agricultural operations at all levels. 

RDTM 402  Rural Development Theories, Strategies and Methods 3 cr.

The course will provide the students with better understanding of the different rural developing theories and concepts and their implications. The students will be able to develop abilities to debate Modernization, Diffusions, Dependency, and Human Ecology theories and to compare their similarities and differences. 

RSEM 402  Rural Small Enterprise Management 3 cr.

The course is designed to provide students with in-depth knowledge and skills on management of small enterprises, models of cottage industries and indigenous knowledge. Different enterprise skills and the know how to initiate one’s own business with gender perspective will be discussed. Fifth Year

AGEX 501  Agriculture Extension 3 cr.

This course provides an in-depth study of alternative approaches to agricultural extension and their contribution to agricultural and rural development. It focuses on the mechanisms needed for improving the delivery and effectiveness of agricultural extension services.  

CMLS 501  Community Mobilization and Leadership 3 cr.

The course aims to equip students with knowledge and skills of community mobilization and empowerment and to develop their understanding the importance of leadership in community planning and management. The course will analyze different approaches and methods of community mobilization and empowerment implemented by different national and international agencies.

PPMG 501  Project Planning and Management 3 cr.

The course aims at providing students with skills needed to identify an investment project and to conduct all the procedures required for its analysis and evaluation. The students will be trained on conducting and reporting simple technical and financial feasibility studies 

NIDO 501  National and International Development Organizations  3 cr.

The course is designed to develop students’ awareness and understanding of the NGOs’ role in development. It focuses on strategic planning, problem and stakeholder analysis, social capital budgeting, fund raising and leadership skills. The course provides the students with training to grasp issues relating to needs assessment and NGOs’ management methods.

GPRD 502  Gender Planning Initiative for Rural Development  3 cr.

The aim of the course is to develop greater awareness and understanding of gender as key issues in planning and analysis of rural development projects. It will provide the students with both conceptual and analytical perspective of gender in development, and develop their ability to conduct gender-sensitive planning through the use of specific methodologies and frameworks. 

EXAS 502  Extension Administration and Supervision 3 cr.

This course introduces administration/ management concepts, theories and approaches; and provides platforms for discussion of their implications for administration and supervision of extension and community development programs.

SGID 502  Special Groups in Development 3 cr.

The course introduces theories and models of youth and children’s benefit and involvement in the development process (human capital and human resource development). It emphasizes on the needs of special groups in education, health water and sanitation training and capacity building, and training on mobilization techniques used for safeguarding access of special groups to development services.

RESP 502 Research Project  6 cr.

Its requires each student to identify a problem relating to rural extension education and development, and conduct field research to produce a dissertation  in partial fulfillment of the requirements’ to be awarded  the B.Sc. (Honors) degree. 

CDEV 502 Career Guide 1 cr.

The course is intended to help the students to gain the technical skills needed for starting their intended future careers, and advancing with major objectives that bridge the gap between the university studies and the labor market. 

© Ahfad University for Women. All Rights Reserved.