Books

DRAUGHT ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY FOR SUDAN AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF AFRICA

Elsamawal Khalil Makki and R Anne Pearson (2012)

This is a text book developed to be used in teaching REED students. The book covers all the aspects related to the employment and management of draught animals in different aspects of life. Development of the book aimed at providing information and capacity in technology application and research.

 

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: Concepts and Practices

Shadia Abdel Rahim M. Daoud and Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello (2011)

Community development is an on-going   process to improve various socio-economic and cultural aspects of local communities. The   process includes developing active and sustainable communities, based on social justice and mutual respect. It is about influencing the power structures to remove barriers that prevent people from participation in issues that are affecting their lives.

This book aims at equipping the students and community workers with knowledge and skills needed in community development work.

Risk and Returns: Household Priorities for Resilient Liveilhoods in Darfur

Merry Fitzpatrick and Helen Young, Shadia Abdelrahim Daoud, Awadalla Mohamed Saeed, Sarra Rasheid Ahmed Beheiry and Niveen Salah Eldin Elmagboul

This study describes and analyses how livelihoods in the Darfur Region have been affected by multiple shocks experienced over the past 15 years, the choices families have made to sustain themselves throughout, and the extent to which they have recovered. The lessons learned have been shared as part of an operational research project in support of the Sudan Humanitarian and Resilience Programme (SHARP), a six-member NGO partnership led by Catholic Relief Services (CRS). SHARP supports conflict-affected households to rebuild their livelihoods and to be prepared to deal with future shocks and stresses

 

 Manuals 

 

A REFERENCE MANUAL FOR THE RURAL EXTENSION COURSE 

Prof. ShadiaAbdelrahim Mohammed Daoud 

The readings in this reference manual are organized into five modules. Each module has three to four lectures. Each lecture has a practical. Module One highlights the characteristics of rural livelihoods in Sudan. Module Two explains rural development and related concepts. Module Three, which is a core one, introduces published material that explains rural extension concepts, principles, tools and techniques. Module Four presents characteristics and constraints of rural Sudanese women and also includes material on reproductive health, which is an important issue for rural women. Module Five covers issues relating to preparations for conducting the annual rural field trips, the principal practical component of the rural extension course. 

TRAINING MANUAL FOR EXTENSION WORKERS AND FARMERS USING DRAUGHT ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY

Elsamawal Khalil Makki and R. Anne Pearson (2011)

This is a training manual designed to provide the proper information on the employment of draught animal technology in agriculture. It covers all the aspects related to the husbandry, work and management practices of draught animals. Farmers and extension workers will benefit from the guidelines provided in the training manual. 

Merry Fitzpatrick and Helen Young, with Shadia Abdelrahim Daoud, Awadalla Mohamed Saeed, Sarra Rasheid Ahmed Beheiry and Niveen Salah Eldin Elmagboul "Risk and Returns: Household Priorities For Resilient Liveilhoods in Darfur".

This study describes and analyzes how livelihoods in the Darfur Region have been affected by multiple shocks experienced over the past 15 years, the choices families have made to sustain themselves throughout, and the extent to which they have recovered. The lessons learned have been shared as part of an operational research project in support of the Sudan Humanitarian and Resilience Programme (SHARP), a six-member NGO partnership led by Catholic Relief Services (CRS). SHARP supports conflict-affected households to rebuild their livelihoods and to be prepared to deal with future shocks and stresses

Papers 

Makki, E. K., Eltayeb, F. E., Badri, O. A. (2017). Factors Affecting Draught Animal Technology Adoption in Rural Kordofan. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 5, Issue 5, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473.

Despite its potential benefits to the small-scale traditional farmers, draught animal technology adoption is seriously low in EN-Nhoud locality, West Kordofan State, Sudan. Factors underlying, undermining and affecting the adoption of the technology in the state were identified through a study following the cross-sectional survey design on a sample of 100 farmers divided equally between two strata (users and non-users of DAT). Within each stratum farmers were selected following the systematic random sampling technique based on geographical location. Data was collected using a formal questionnaire with the farmers in face to face interview and was analysed descriptively to produce frequency and percentage tables. Dependency between the selected variables was tested using chi square test. The results showed that both DAT user- and user farmers lack confidence and trust in the technical know-how of the staff responsible for technology transfer and training and extension; they both learn more about the technology from their peer farmers than from formal bodies responsible for training. Factors underlying adoption of DAT are: production purpose, farm size, farmers’ age and land ownership. On the other hand, undermining factors are lack of financial resources, inaccessibility to service, poor
technical know-how of the staff of training and extension authorities. Adoption rate of the technology can be improved by providing credit service and providing high quality training for optimal application of the technology.

Makki, E. K., Eltayeb, F. E., Badri, O. A. (2017). Situation of Women Farmers Using Draught Animal Technology (DAT) in Elfashir, North Darfur State. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 5, Issue 5, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473.

The situation of women farmers using DAT in north Darfur state was explored through a cross-sectional survey on a sample of 30 farmers selected following the systematic random sampling technique. Field data was collected using a formal survey questionnaire in face to face interviews and direct field measurements. The results showed that most of the women farmers are less experienced in DAT and their special needs were not considered or addressed upon inclusion in DAT project. They received improper training and extension and this reflected on less than optimal husbandry and management practices which led to moderately low to low field capacity (ha/h).

Makki, E. K., Eltayeb, F. E., Badri, O. A. (2016). Effect of some Husbandry Practices on Draught Power and Field Performance of Draught Horses whenPloughing in Western Kordofan State, Sudan. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 5, Issue 5, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473.

This study explored the draught power, live weight and body condition in relation to draught horses’ field performance in Western Kordofan State, Sudan. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design on a sample of 90 farmers selected from 10 different clusters/villages following the systematic random sampling technique on geographic location. Data was collected using formal survey questionnaire in face to face interviews and direct field measurements. Field data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 14) to produce frequency and percentage tables, while dependency tests were carried out using the chi square test and the relationship between other factors was tested using Pearson coefficient of correlation. The results showed that poor horse feeding practices resulted in horses with comparatively low live weight, although in a good body condition due to their small size. This reflected on generating moderate to high draught power. A highly significant (p≤0.01) strong (r=0.9) relationship was indicated between draught power and work speed, while the relationship with live weight was moderate. Farmers mostly worked at low forward speed (3.0 km/h and less) which was moderately (r=0.6) related to plot length. Field capacities were on the low side (0.05 ha/h for 42.2% of the sample). A strong (r=0.8) highly significant relationship  (p≤0.01) was indicated between field capacity and area worked. Live weight did not have a significant effect on field capacity, while draught had a strong (r=0.8) significant  (p≤0.05) relationship with field capacity. Field efficienci were on the moderate to high range and had a weak relationship with area worked and draught power.

Makki, E. K., Eltayeb, F. E., Badri, O. A. (2016). Effect of extension and training on farmers’ husbandry and management practices and field performance when using draught horses in ploughing. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Vol.8 (6), pp. 89-98.

For draught animal technology to contribute to its full potential to farming, it needs to be backed up with suitable and relevant extension and training packages. This study investigated the effect of extension on farmers’ husbandry and management practices and field performance of draught horses in EN-Nhoud locality, West Kordofan State, Sudan. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design on a sample of 80 farmers, selected following the systematic random sampling technique on geographical location. Data was collected using a formal questionnaire with the farmers in face to face interview and was analysed descriptively to produce frequency and percentage tables. Dependency between the selected variables was tested using chi square test. Additional data was collected through interviews with the director of the Administration of Agriculture in the locality and the senior staff as well as group discussions with the prominent farmers. The results showed that extension faces many constraints and problems; the most important of which are: Lack of funds, lack of experienced staff and lack of clear curricula and training content. This reflected on a weak role and impact on the farmers’ side and their husbandry and management practices were less than optimal and consequently field performance was on the poor side. Animal feeding, harnessing and plough operation and care were poorly applied.

Makki, E. K., Eltayeb, F. E., Badri, O. A. (2016).Relationship Between Husbandry Practices, Animal Live-weight, Body Condition and Field Performance Draught Horses when ploughing. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 4, Issue 4: 2319-1473.

The present study examined the effect of some work horses husbandry practices on their live weight, body condition and field performance when ploughing. The research adopted the cross-sectional design on a sample of 90 farmers randomly selected from 10 villages. collected using formal survey questionnaire and direct field measurements. Dependency between husbandry practices
and field performance was tested using the chi square test. The results showed that husbandry practices were less than optimal which reflected on horses’ live weight. The only significant relationship was established between regularity of veterinary care and live weight (p≤0.05). Horses mostly worked at moderately low to low forward speed and field capacity. Field efficiency was rather on the high side. The low performance is partly a result of poor husbandry practices and work practices that shadowed the effect of good management.

Makki, E. K. (2014). Husbandry, working practices and field performance when using draught oxen in land preparation in Shambat, Nile Valley, Sudan. Accepted. Trop. Anim. Health Prod.46(1):145-51

Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxen management and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90–2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p = 0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention.

Makki, E. K., Musa, E. O. (2013). Management and field performance of horses and donkeys used for ploughing on smallholder farms. An example from North Kordofan, Sudan. Livestock Research for Rural Development 25(5).

This study explored the effect of draught horse and donkey management on the field capacity and efficiency during ploughing . The study followed the cross-sectional survey design with a sample of 100 farmers selected randomly from 10 clusters (villages). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire in face to face interviews combined with direct field measurements during ploughing.

Health care, feeding, harnessing and care of the plough were determined and found to be sub-optimal. These may have contributed to the low working speed, poor field capacity and efficiency recorded by the majority of farmers when ploughing. The study did not identify a significant relationship between the selected animal management practices and performance as determined by measurement of field capacity and efficiency.  Low field performance may have been at least partly due to poor work practices and skills that masked any positive effect of good animal management. 

Makki, E. K., Manzool, S. A. (2013). Relationship between management and field performance of draught animals used for land preparation. An example from South Kordofan State, Sudan. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science 2:(3), 080-087.

This study was conducted to investigate the association between animal work hours, feeding and other aspects of animal management and care on the field capacity and efficiency recorded by these working animals in Adilling, South Kordofan State, Sudan. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design with a sample of 100 farmers from 10 villages in the locality following the systematic random sampling technique based on geographical location. Data were collected using a formal survey questionnaire in a face to face interview, for literacy reasons, combined with direct field measurements during land preparation. The results revealed that field capacity was significantly related to veterinary care of draught animals (p= 0.001), while the effect of daily work hours and type of animal feed was not significant. Farmers’ status and financial capacity, as expressed by their production, purpose significantly affected field capacity and efficiency (p = 0.033 and p = 0.021, respectively) with 64% of those producing cash crops working at 0.02 – 0.08 ha/h. The majority of the latter group (78%) recorded field efficiencies between 70 and 90%.

 Makki, E. K., Jamaa, L. S. (2012). Animal traction in Sudanese agriculture, a comparative study. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 43:(3), 9-14.

This study investigated the similarities and differences of animal traction in different farming systems in the Sudan. It followed the cross-sectional survey design in three farming sites: Dongola, Alhagize and Shambat. Field data were collected from a sample of 30 farmers in each site. Dependency of selected parameters on farming site was tested using the chi square test. The results revealed several differences between the three sites in animal types, feeding practices and farming operations with relative similarities between Dongola and Shambat. Farmers in the three sites face many problems relating to harness and tools manufacture and repair on one hand, and extension and capacity building on the other.

Makki, E. K., Ali, O. O., Mohamed, A. E. (2011). Evaluation of uniformity coefficient and water distribution efficiency of some impact sprinklers in Shambat, Sudan. U of K. J. Agric. Sci.19:(2), 161- 177.

Abstract: This study was carried out during May and June 2010 in the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum at Shambat, to evaluate water distribution under different types of sprinkler heads. The study consisted of evaluating Christiansen's coefficient of uniformity (CU %) and uniformity of distribution (DU %) under twin nozzle brass impact sprinkler (JIS2), twin nozzle plastisprinkler (DAN4455) and single nozzle plastic sprinkler (LEG055). The twin nozzle brass sprinkler gave significantly better values for all sprinkler configurations, while the difference between twin and single nozzle plastic sprinklers was mostly insignificant. At low wind speeds «2.0 mls) and narrow configurations, the single nozzle plastic sprinkler gave better values of CU% and DU%.

Makki, E. K., Musa, E. O. (2011). A survey on draught animal technology (DAT) in EN-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan. Trop Anim Health Prod 43:923- 928.

Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers.

Suliman, M. M., Mohamed, A. E., Makki, E. K. (2010). Effect of different soild-set sprinkler patterns on water distribution and losses under Shambat conditions, Sudan. U of K. J. Agric. Sci.18:(2,)166-184.

An experiment to compare the performance of different solid- , set sprinkler patterns was carried out during March and April 2004 in the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum at Shambat. The experiment consisted of testing the effect of square, rectangular and triangular sprinkler patterns on Christiansen's coefficient of uniformity (CU%), uniformity of distribution (DU%) and water loss (%) using the completely randomized design. The triangular pattern recorded the highest uniformity coefficient and uniformity of distribution and the lowest water loss. Water distribution uniformity (CU% and DU%) and water loss (%) were not significantly affected by sprinkler patterns. However, mean CU% and DU% had the following descending  order: triangular pattern > square pattern > rectangular pattern, while mean values of water loss (%) was as follows: rectangular pattern> I square pattern> triangular pattern.

Makki, E. K., Lodala, M. J., Diko, B. (2009). Women farmers and agricultural hand tools in Terekaka, Southern Sudan. The Ahfad Journal 26:(2),47-58.

Abstract The state of farming hand tools adopted by women farmers in Terekaka, Southern Sudan was explored during May and June 2005. Field data was collected using questionnaires in face to face interviews and group discussions with 125 women farmers in the household and commercial production sites. The majority of women were apparently satisfied with the tools they use despite their drudgery of work and short durability. This related to socio-cultural aspects. Women lack training and extension on hand tools and they demanded basic consideration to their special needs in the design of farming tools. They demanded affordable, lighter and long handled tools.

Makki, E. K., Gebreel, B. A. (2009). The role of women in jubraka farming and household food security in Kadogli (South Kordofan State). The Ahfad Journal 26:(2),40-57.

Abstract: Field data for this exploratory, descriptive study was collected by structured interviews from a sample of 100 women farmers in four villages around Kadogli during June and July 2005. The study attempted to investigate the role of women in the traditional household farm (Jubraka) and household food security. The results showed that women, in all ages, successfully practice household farming (despite the additional burden it places on them) producing different types of crops, which contribute substantially to the household food security. Crops produced were mainly cereals and vegetables for subsistence in most cases. Jubraka area ranged between 1 and five feddans in most cases, with few ones measuring less than one feddan. The Jubraka is fully managed and run by women, who also have full control on its outputs and returns.

Design of an animal drawn ridger for traditional vegetables farmers in Shambat area, Sudan. DAN 46:(1), 4-9.

An animal drawn ridger (HAFEED) was designed and successfully tested during the period from June 2003 to January 2004. The ridger was mainly designed for use by the traditional vegetable farmers in Shambat Sudan. The designed ridger produced a ridge height (20 cm), a ridge width (43 cm) and distance between ridges (49cm), which resulted in superior fieldcapacityandfieldefficiency,ascomparedtothetraditionalridgingprocessesusingeitheraridgingploughorthetwomanshovel.Ridgeformationcosts(SDG/feddan)usingtheHAFEEDridgerwere46%and61%lessthancosts using thetraditionalploughand two-man shovel, respectively.

Makki, E. K., Mohamed, A. E. (2008). Tillage implements performance and effect on some soil physical properties. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 39:(3),9-13.

A chisel plough, disk plough and ridger were tested to evaluate their effect on selected soil physical properties along with their performance and power requirements. Implement type had a consistent significant effect (P < 0.01) on soil moisture content (%), whereas, bulk density (g/cm 3) and porosity (%) showed inconsistent response. However, the chisel plough recorded the highest moisture content and basic infiltration rate values as compared to the ridger and disk plough. The chisel plough had the highest power requirement and fuel consumption. The ridger had the lowest power requirement and fuel consumption, but recorded the highest field capacity and efficiency.

Streifeller, F., Makki, E.K., Ayoub, A. T. (2008). Urban and peri-urban agriculture as a livelihood strategy of internally displaced persons in Khartoum. Working paper Nr. 86/2008. Humboldt University, Berlin.

Abstract Urban agriculture is a very important activity of refugees although it has not been in the focus of research as today. This research was done in the region of greater Khartoum in the Sudan which was the destination of migration of 5 million people in the last 25 years coming in cause of environmental disasters and military conflicts. By the realization of urban and periurban agriculture the absolute poverty is strongly reduced. But the realization of urban agriculture in a new and strange environment creates many problems coming from the natural, economic and social differences between the homeland and the destination of migration. Generally, there is a low degree of agricultural development, but over the time, differences are emerging. There is a general tendency that all the migrants wish to return to their homeland, but the concrete intentions to go back has a greater importance in the migrants with smaller fields and a lower degree of agricultural development. The social factors are also important – not only in choose of the destination of the migration, but also in the decision to stay or to return which is affected by the social integration into the host community.

Abdalla, M. A., Mohamed, A.E., Makki, E.K. (2007). The response of two grain sorghum cultivars to conventional and conservation tillage systems in central Sudan. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 38:(4),67-71.

Water conservation becomes the ultimate goal of crop producers under rain fed agriculture. In this regard, different tillage systems can produce varying effects on soil physical properties and consequently soil moisture content and crop yield. Three tillage systems were selected to study the effect on some soil physical properties and yield of two grain-sorghum cultivars. The experiments were carried out for two consecutive seasons at two sites in central Sudan. The three tillage systems were conservation using chiseling to a depth of 30 cm, conventional using ridging to a depth of 8 cm and no-till as control. Conservation tillage showed a significant effect on all soil physical properties as well as sorghum yield components. Soil bulk density with conservation and conventional tillage decreased below the control value by 20.0 % and 6.6 %, respectively, while soil porosity increased over the control value by 52.0 % and 9.8 % under the aforementioned tillage systems, respectively. As a result, the soil moisture content increased beyond the control by 244.5 % in the case of conservation tillage and by 122.4 % with conventional tillage system. Grain yield increased by 596.3 % under conservation tillage and by 200 % under conventional tillage. On the other hand, the dry matter yield was 188.2 % and 30 % higher than the control under conservation and conventional tillage systems, respectively.

Elsamawal Khalil Makki and Bedor Ezeldin Eljack (2003). Seasonal variation and production of biogas from three types of animal dung. The Ahfad Journal 20:(2),19-25

The present investigation was carried out in the main campus of Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman. The investigation was concerned with the seasonal variation and production of biogas from three different types of animal dung. Each type of animal dung was studied for moisture content (%), volatile solids (%), fixed solids (%) and gas productivity ([m.sup.3]). The results were then analyzed using ANOVA tables. Goat dung recorded significantly higher moisture content of 2.1% as compared to cow and donkey dung, which recorded 1.52 and 1.18 % respectively (P [less than or equal to] 0.05). Volatile and fixed solids (%) were significantly affected by animal waste type (P [less than or equal to] 0.05). Donkey dung recorded the highest volatile solids, while cow dung recorded the highest fixed solids. Biogas productivity of the different types of animal dung varied. However, goat dung produced more gas than both donkey and cow dung. A high association between Biogas productivity and mean monthly temperature was observed.

Abdelmoniem Elamin Mohamed and Elsamawal Khalil Makki (2005). Wheat Response to Irrigation Scheduling.U of K. J. Agric. Sci.13:(1),53-67.

Elsamawal Khalil Makki and Abdelmoniem Elamin Mohamed (2005). Forage Sorghum Production Under Sprinkler and Flood Irrigation Systems.U of K. J. Agric. Sci.13:(2),262-275.

Elsamawal Khalil Makki and Abdelmoniem Elamin Mohamed (2005). Effect of Tillage and Irrigation Scheduling on Wheat.U of K. J. Agric. Sci.13:(3),422 - 441.

Elsamawal Khalil Makki (2005). A comparative Study of Irrigation Scheduling in Small Farms in Khartoum .U of K. J. Agric. Sci.13:(3),442 - 451.

 

 

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