The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change


The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change was initiated in 1984 by Professor Lee Burchinal who was then working at Ahfad University for Women, and who acted as a founding editor for the Journal for three years after its establishment. Upon his return to the USA 1987, Professor Amna Badri, then an associate professor and Vice President for the Academic Affairs, became the editor in chief for the journal till 2015, then succeed by Professor Mutamad Amin.

The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change is accredited for being the only scholarly journal published on a regular basis in Sudan, since its inception in 1984.

The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change is published twice a year, in June and December. Articles are to be written in English with Arabic and English abstracts simultaneously. Each issue contains 5 to 6 articles, summaries of senior research projects conducted by Ahfad students and book reviews.

Notice to Contributors

1. The Ahfad Journal Women and Change publishes original contributions consisting of reports, researches, literature reviews, historical or critical analyses research notes, and book reviews, or articles pertaining to the status of women in developing countries and the role of women in development, as well as contributions to social and health sciences.

2. Manuscripts may be submitted at any time to the Editor.  Submissions shall be reviewed by qualified experts in terms of the theoretical interest, use of scientific language and readability as well as practical value and relevance to The Ahfad Journal Women and Change.

3. Submission of manuscripts 

3.1 Should be via email in word format with minimum formatting.

3.2 The length of the manuscript should be between 1000 and 5000 words, including tables, figures and references. Footnotes should be used sparingly and placed at the bottom of the page on which they occur.

3.3 The order of the elements comprising the manuscript should be as follows, title, and name of author institutional affiliations, abstract, text of the article, tables or figures and list of references.

3.4 Title should be placed at the top of the first page, centred and except for proper nouns only the first letter of the first word is capitalized.  

3.5 Authors' names should be listed in the following style: Author's third name first, then the first and the second initials.

3.6 Abstracts should be provided in English and Arabic languages if possible; each should not exceed

200 words. Each abstract should be followed by a minimum of five keywords relevant to the issue of the manuscript submitted to the Journal.

3.7 Structures should be as simple as possible. Headings for major sections should be placed on the left margins with only the first letter of the first heading-word is capitalized (e.g. Introduction,

Review of literature.) If used, secondary headings should be placed to the left margin with only the first letter of the first word capitalized above the appropriate paragraphs.

3.8 Tables and figures both should be typed within the text and numbered sequentially (table (1) or Figure (1), etc.) followed by a brief clear title and a comment below each table. Tables and figures

should be comprehensive without the text.  Only the first letter of the word titles should be capitalized.  The positioning of a table or figure in the text should be indicated by a new line type and centered on the page.

3.9 The title of the paper should be clear and reflective to the subject matter of the article.  It should be well punctuated, centred and placed on the top of the first page.  Except for names and proper nouns only the first letter of the title is capitalized. 

4. Citations

4.1 To differentiate between two citations by the same author in the same year, references should be labelled by year with an added letter as: (Idris 1978a) for the first publication in (1978b) for the second and so on.

4.2 Double quotation marks should be used for direct quotations, for example: Steward argued that,

“law functions as an instrument of control by promoting or inhibiting access to certain resources”

(Steward 1991, p.25). 

4.3 Citing a work done by three authors should appear like this: Ahmed, Rodney, and Kelly stated

that, …….  (2011 p. 28).

4.4 Citing a work done by four or more authors should appear like this: Ahmed et al. stated that,

………..  (2011 p. 45).

4.5 A single quotation mark is the punctuation required for quotations within quotations.

4.6 Translations intended mainly for the reader’s convenience in manuscripts should appear in


5.  References

The Ahfad University Journal Women and Change adopts Harvard system of referencing which is also known as the author-date style. Thus, references should be listed in a section headed by "references", which should follow the body of the manuscript. All references cited in the text of the manuscript should appear in the reference part and should be fully documented and alphabetized. 

List names of authors following Harvard style of referencing that is author-date model whereby (The author is cited second name first. The first name is abbreviated followed by the date of publication of the material cited) as shown in the examples.

Some examples are shown as follows:

5.1 Reference of books: 

Steward, A. 2011. Gender, Law and justice in a global market, Cambridge: Cambridge University


Referring to a book written by three or four authors should appear like this: Ahmed, M.; Rodney, Z.,

and Kelly T., 2011. Religion, Ideology and Society, Peacock Publishers: Chicago.

5.2 Reference of a chapter in an edited work:

Mohamed, O. 1978.  Family planning and family health, In E. Ali and M. Khalil eds Reproductive

health Issues, pp. 139-162, Khartoum: Khartoum University Press. 

5.3 Reference of an article in a journal: 

Ahmed, M. 2004. Psychology in the Arab World, Psychology vol. 14, no. 2, pp.118- 125.

5.4 Reference of a newspaper:

Rodney, Z. 2005. Edinburgh leads the way in festival management, The Guardian, November 19, p.5.

5.5 Reference of a Ph.D. thesis:

Kelly, T. 1981. The Irish-Catholic immigrant, 1890-1930, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University.

5.6 Conference proceedings from a website Callaghan, S., and Martin, B., 2004. 'Igniting concern

about refugee injustice’, paper presented at the Education and Social Action Conference, 6-8

December 2004, Oslo, Norway. html.

Accessed: 5 May 2005.

5.7 Electronic reference: 

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 1999. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Report,

viewed 6 July 2008,

To the extent feasible, authors will be provided an opportunity to review any changes made to their main scripts before publication.  However, this will not always be possible due to the time constraints in sending changes and receiving back comments from authors.  Therefore The Ahfad Journal reserves the right to make editorial but not substantial changes in manuscripts without consulting the authors.  Also, we regret that it will not always be possible to allow authors to review galley or page proofs of articles.

6. Contact addresses

All rights are reserved. For permission to reproduce material from The Ahfad Journal, apply to the 

editor in chief:

Or to the editor

Hwiada AbuBaker

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

7. Subscription

The library rate for an annual subscription to The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change is $40.00 (U.S.).

Individual subscriptions are $25.00 (U.S.) per year. These prices include airmail delivery. Back issues are available at the price of $20.00 (U.S.) per issue. Discounts are available for multi-year back orders.

To subscribe, send a check, made out to "Ahfad University for Women” and mail it to:

Dr. Lee G. Burchinal

3440 S. Jefferson Street, #437

Falls Church VA 22041

Invoices are provided upon request 

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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